Choosing the range of ornamental plants for garden decoration, experts point out, first of all, on such features of plants - Ornamental (crown shape, color and length of flowering, autumn color, leaf shape, etc.), requirements for environmental growing conditions and the complexity of care. And, of course, there is always the desire to pick up such plants, which would be very decorative, less troublesome to clean and not demanding growing conditions. Important factors in selecting the range is also possible without any problems to buy these plants in nurseries or garden centers, as well as their cost. Among the huge number of species of shrubs in the current range of plants for the garden, it is spirea, perhaps, best meet the above requirements to specialists shrub species. With its high decorative, most Spiro not particularly picky about soil and fairly resistant to pests and diseases. Many of them suffer drought and frost, They also have a good honey plant and phytoncidic activity, especially during flowering.
Spirea, usually in a large assortment as nurseries and at garden centers, because they are fairly easy to breed like seeds and root suckers, cuttings, layering and division of shrubs.
Genus Spiraea (Spiraea) has approximately 100 species of deciduous shrubs, and most species have numerous decorative forms. In the Ukraine, mainly used in landscaping introduced species, as in the natural conditions of the country grow only 7 species. Leaves are alternate, petiolate, simple, 3-5-lobed, serrate-toothed. Flowers bisexual, rarely - dioecious, small, different shades from white to purple, collected, usually in clusters - umbrellas or in panicles.
On flowering time they are divided into two groups - ranotsvetuschie species (also called - vesennetsvetuschie) and blossoming summer (letnetsvetuschie.) *
Ranotsvetuschie spirea the majority have white flowers and they bloom on new wood is usually the last year. Flowering begins with these types of 2-3 years of life. They are characterized by the formation of numerous tillers.
The representatives the second group - Flowers of pink, red, crimson, and flowering occurs on new growth this year. The following year, blossoms again appear at the ends of the side of young shoots. After the third year of life, rejuvenate old shoots, removing the top. If not removed aging runners, the tip of the old escape deviates strongly to the ground and slowly dries. Plants older than 4 years of age is recommended annually in the spring to cut the entire upper part of the bush at a height of 25-30 cm from the ground.* Note from the author. Classification of the SPIRIT "vesennetsvetuschie" and "letnetsvetuschie" now, according to published sources, common, but in my opinion not quite right, since the time of flowering depends on many factors - the more the climatic growing zones (southern Ukraine spirea Vangutta blooms in May (spring), the Urals in June), a lesser degree on the weather, location, etc. Therefore, more correctly spirea divided into 2 groups with a more objective and stable basis, namely the nature of flowering - spirit "bloom on new wood this year ", and spirea" bloom on new wood last year. " However, it is a classification offers scientists NA Aksenov and LA Frolov in the book "Trees and Shrubs for amateur gardening and landscaping", Moscow University Publishing House, 1989.
Feature flowering Spira to be taken into account in the care of their farming practices: ranotsvetuschie types and forms of Spiro trimmed after flowering and flowering summer cut before the growing season in early spring, as described above. Also noteworthy is a feature of Spiro - the first group of plants bloom more intense, but very short-lived (10 to 20 days), the second group of flowering is usually not as plentiful, but continues for a longer time, and some of them are re-marked Early autumn bloom, as, for example, spirea Bumalda Vaterer `Anthony`.
Of the group ranotsvetuschih (vesennetsvetuschih) spiro most often used in landscaping the following types:
Spirea Vangutta - (Spiraea x vanhouttei)
Deciduous shrub about 2.0 m long, with arcuate drooping shoots, giving the bush a cascade. The leaves are dark green, leathery glossy with a clear bluish tinge on the lower side - blue-green, different from other Spiro presence of 3.5 toothed circular blades. Autumn colored in purple, red and burgundy tones. The flowers are white, gathered in numerous large inflorescences shields, heavy cover shoots along their length. It flowers in May for three weeks. Light-requiring, makes light shading. By not demanding soils, but prefers fertile calcareous, well-drained. Drought-resistant. Is growing rapidly. It is recommended to light pruning after flowering. After a 7-10-year-old shoots removed obsolete. To rejuvenate Hard pruning bushes used to form coppice shoots. Used for single and group planting on a lawn, a unshaped hedgerows, groups of trees and bushes, shrubs mixborders and mixed with perennials groups.
Spirea gray - Spiraea x cinerea
Deciduous branched dense bush whose branches climb up, then bent down to form a beautiful, spreading crown. Height of 1.5 - 2 m characteristic leaves of this shrub: gray-green on top, with the bottom of the lighter, pointed at both ends. White flowers clustered in loose flaps located throughout the escape. The bush is very decorative with a host of white blossoms, compact bush and arched drooping branches. This spirea blooms in early May. Light-requiring, but tolerates partial shade, but blooms in the shade worse. On soil is not demanding. Planted spirea bushes gray either single or in groups on the lawn.
The species has a decorative shape 'Grefshaym' - Spirea x cinerea 'Grefsheim' - densely bushy shrub up to 2 m tall, with a thin, decorative hanging tree branches. Profuse flowering. Snow-white blossoms densely arranged along the length of last year's shoots.
Spirea sharp-toothed, or Argut - Spiraea. x arguta Zab.
This type of spirea profuse thanks, grace thin, arched curving branches is considered one of the most spectacular Spira spring flowering period. Has a wide spreading crown, up to 2 m tall. Leaves are narrow, lanceolate, strongly serrated, dark green, up to 4 cm long. The flowers are pure white, up to 0.8 cm in diameter, in the many, many-flowered, umbellate inflorescence, densely covering the shoots. Blooms on new growth last year, so cut it immediately after flowering. It grows fast, is stable in the city. Light-requiring. Not demanding to fertility and soil moisture. Applied in single landing on the lawn, and in combinations with other shrubs. It can also be used to create hedges.
Nipponskaya spirea - Spiraea nipponica
Deciduous shrub elegant 1.5-2.0 (2.5) m tall, with a very dense, spherical crown. The compact structure of the crown and abundant flowering. The leaves are rounded at the top of crenate, sometimes edged up to 4.5 cm long, retain green color until late fall. White corymbose inflorescence up to 8 cm in diameter densely cover shoots. Bloom in May - June 15-25 days. Winter hardiness is high. Light-requiring shade. By not demanding soil richness. Propagated by seeds, cuttings and dividing the bush.
Has the decorative forms
Spirea nipponskaya Snoumaund `` (Spirea nipponskaya 'Snowmound')-shrub 1.3 - 2.0 m, crown diameter of 4 m Crohn very dense branches gracefully curved. The leaves are dark green, oblong-obovate. The flowers are white, gathered in small scale corymbose inflorescence.
Spirea nipponskaya Halvare `Silver` (Spirea nipponskaya 'Halward's Silver') - a compact shrub about 1 m and 1.3 m crown diameter, the leaves are dark green. White flowers in large convex inflorescences.
Deserve attention and application in planting these types of groups: Alpine Spirea (S. alpina), crenate Spirea (S. crenata), Spirea dubravkolistnaya (S. chamaediyfolia), Spirea average (S. media).
At nurseries and garden centers can also be found also such species: zveroboelistnaya Spirea (S. hypericifolia), Cantonese Spirea (S. santoniensis), many-flowered Spirea (S. x multiflora), a charming Spirea (S. vella), Spirea slivolistnaya ( S. prunifolia), Thunberg Spirea (S. Thunbergii), Spirea lobed (S. trilobata).
Of the group of spiro flowering in summer (letnetsvetuschih) often used in gardening and following their decorative forms
Bumalda spirea - Spiraea bumalda
Small deciduous shrub, up to 80-100 cm tall, with graceful, spherical crown and erect branches. Shoots slightly ribbed, glabrous. The leaves are up to 8 cm long, ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, acute biserrate. Flower color varies from pale pink to dark pink. Blooms almost all summer, about 50 days. Very nice hybrid with highly variable characteristics, often difficult to distinguish from the Japanese spirea, typically below it and with a ribbed stems. Winter hardiness is high.
Freezeproof, not demanding site conditions. Looks great in groups, single crop, as well as borders.
It has a lot of decorative forms. Most often used in landscaping are:
Spirea Anthony Vaterer Bumalda `` (Spiraea bumalda 'Anthony Waterer') - deciduous shrub with a compact spherical crown and 1.2 m in height and width. Perfectly amenable formirovke (can be cut). Leaves lanceolate, acute, 5-8 cm long, are alternate on the shoots, light - green, blossom with a little reddish.
Very beautiful blooms in June - July, sometimes again in August-September. Flowers from crimson to ruby-red, gathered in thyroid inflorescences 12-15 cm in diameter, located at the ends of the shoots.
Flowering lasts 100 days. For abundant flowering shrubs should be cut rapidly in spring (blooms on one-year shoots). Freezeproof, not demanding site conditions.
Spirea Bumalda Goldfleym `` (Spiraea bumalda 'Gold flame')-compact shrub with dense spherical crown 0.5 - 0.7 m tall, slaboroslye. Leaves with blossom bronze-orange, golden yellow later in the summer - a greenish-yellow and copper-orange in autumn. The flowers are small corymbose inflorescences collected from crimson to ruby-red. Can be used for low hedges, rabatok and in rock gardens, in groups in various combinations with other deciduous and coniferous plants. Most brightly colored leaves get solar areas in the shadows, they are green.
Japanese spirea - Spiraea japonica
Deciduous beautiful shrub 1-1.5 m high, oblong-ovate leaves, green above, glaucous below, with blossom with a reddish tint in the autumn leaves have a spectacular variety of colors. Blooms in June-August, rose-red flowers in corymbose inflorescence pink shades. The average duration of flowering 40-50 days. Used to create a long-flowering groups of low, hedges and borders. Frost hardiness and good. Has perhaps the largest number of garden forms, differing in flower color, height and size of the bush leaf.
The most interesting in decorative terms, and, therefore, often used in landscaping, the following:
Japanese Spirea 'Little Princess `(Spiraea japonica` Little Princess `) Deciduous stunted shrub up to 0.5 - 0.6 m, crown diameter and 0.8 m grows slowly. Crohn's dense, rounded and compact. Flowering in June - July, pale pink flowers in small corymbose inflorescence. The leaves are small, dark green. Autumn colored in yellow and ocher shades.
Winter hardiness is high. Light-requiring, makes light shading. It has low soil, but prefers moist, fertile, friable soil. Used to create a low curb, tamping tree and shrub groups, forest edges, mixborders shrubs, flower beds, ornamental gardens, rocky gardens.
Japanese spirea Albiflora `` (Spiraea japonica 'Albiflora') - deciduous dwarf shrub with compact lace crown to 1.3 m high and 1.5 m wide. Perfectly amenable formirovke (can be cut). The leaves on shoots alternate, lanceolate, pointed, up to 7 cm long, light green. Blooms in July. Flowers white, gathered in thyroid inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter, located at the ends of the shoots. Profuse flowering. Freezeproof, not demanding site conditions.
Japanese spirea Shirobana `` (Spiraea japonica 'Shirobana') - A low shrub 0.6 - 0.8 m, 1.2 m diameter of the crown leaves narrowly lanceolate, light or dark green to 2 cm long. Flower color varies from white to pink or light red. Flowering time: July - August. This low bush successfully used to create a low curb, in various combinations with conifers and other shrubs.
Japanese spirea Goldfleym `` (Spiraea japonica 'Goldflame'). Similar to the decorative form of the same name Bumalda spirea, and the bush was a tall (up to 0.8-1 m), there are also differences in the seasonal color of leaves and flowers. Leaves at regrowth of orange-yellow color. Then yellow-green, in autumn acquire coppery orange. Sometimes the bush appear variegated leaves. The flowers are small buds collected in the thyroid, pink and red. Used to create a low neformiruemyh hedges, trees and shrubs of contrasting groups, forest edges, shrub mixborders.
Japanese spirea 'Golden Princess `(Spiraea japonica' Golden Princess'). Deciduous shrub up to 0.5-0.6 m leaves in spring are bright yellow, soft shades, summer light yellow, cool colors, autumn - orange-yellow. Blooms in June - July, corymbose inflorescences are small, pink. Winter hardiness is high. Svetolyubiv grade. Thrive in any soil, but prefers moist, fertile, friable soil. Used to create a low curb, contrasting groups of trees and bushes, forest edges, mixborders shrubs, flower beds, rocky gardens.
Japanese Spirea 'Gold Mound `(Spiraea japonica' Gold Mound '). Stunted, compact shrub with dense foliage 0.3 - .4 (0.5) m in height, width up to 0.6 m in the young leaves have a slight reddish tinge, after becoming golden and retain this color all season. The leaves are medium size, are often on shoots. Soft pink bloom flowers in inflorescence Highbush from June to August. On soil is not demanding. Light-requiring. Preferred sunny areas, especially for maintaining yellow foliage. Winter-hardy, hardy.
Used in planting and curbs in mixborders also in different compositions with coniferous cultures. Can be used in rock gardens and as Tub culture.
Billard Spirea - Spiraea x billardii
Interspecific hybrid between Douglas spirea, purple loosestrife and spirea (S. douglasii x S. salicifolia). Deciduous shrub with spreading branches growing vertically, up to 2 m tall. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical 4-8 (10) cm long, biserrate, bottom gray-tomentose. Bright pink flowers clustered in tight, dense pyramidal, paniculate inflorescences up to 20 cm long. Blooms in late summer to late autumn. Frost. Shade-tolerant, but best bloom in full sun. Used more often for non-formed hedges of medium height, planted as groups and individual shrubs.
Has decorative forms, but often used:
Billard Spirea Triumfans `` (Spiraea x billardii 'Triumphans') quite tall, for Spiro, scrub-up to 2.5 m tall. In contrast to the parent form, dark pink flowers, gathered in a very dense numerous conical inflorescences. The leaves are dull green above, blue-green underneath, narrow, oblong, pointed at the end, up to 10 cm long. Used in single-crop groups hedges.
Also successfully be used in landscaping and the below listed species:
White spirea - S. alba, Spiraea belotsvetkovaya - S. albiflora (Miq.) Zbl. , Spirea, purple loosestrife - S. salicifoiia L., Spiraea low - S. humilis, Spirea Douglas - S. douglasii, Spirea berezolistnaya - S. betulifolia, Spiraea tomentosa - S. Spiraea tomentosa gustotsvetkovaya - S. densiflora,. Spirea Broad - S. latifolia
Use in landscaping
In landscape groups can use almost all kinds of spirits. For best results, it is advisable to plant next to several instances of the same species or variety.
Many are not very high spirea opushechnoy used to fit around trees or tall shrubs. Especially beautiful look different krasnolistnye or gold varieties Spiro framing zelenolistnye usual group of trees and shrubs.
In single crop. Especially effective single planting in small areas of gardening in small gardens. In single crop can be used all kinds of shapes and decorative Spira, but look better in such plantings Vangutta spirea, medium, gray, white, Billard, Douglas. All these tall Spiraea, generally have a nice shape and abundant bright bloom.
Monosady (collections of spirit): Spiraea decorative and vary the shape and color of leaves, the size and shape of the bush, the shape and color of flower clusters. Besides, they bloom at different times, so beautiful garden decor can only be created out of the bushes of this kind, knowing and skillfully selecting species on these grounds. Due to his knowledge as a form of decorative Spiro you can create a garden of continuous flowering, which from May to September will be fragrant flowering shrubs, spring white color which will be replaced by the pink and crimson. Flowering begins with Spiro ostrozazubrennoy, sulfur and high in early May and ends on the secondary flowering - Spiraea Bumalda "Anthony Vaterer", which bloom until October.
For borders and hedges. For low curbs you can use these kinds of Spirit: Japanese, berezolistnaya low, Bumalda, etc., as well as all their fine form. To hedge a greater height than the borders, you can use taller species: white Spiro, Douglas, purple loosestrife, billiards.
For slides and containers. All species are recommended for creating borders, can be successfully used for planting in rockeries, rock garden, flower slides, as well as for planting in containers, vases, flower pots, flower pots.
For practical purposes. All spirea - good honey plant. Therefore, in areas where the collected different types of spirea can include hives. Most of Spira, particularly late-, can be successfully used for cut flowers for bouquets and arrangements of bouquets of flowers, and withered blossoms and Japanese spirea Bumalda for floral arrangements of dried flowers.
Spirea phytoncidic has high activity, which increases its sanitary and hygienic role in improving the environment, and that is very important for gardening areas sanatoriums and recreation areas.
Rekovets Peter dendrologist,
Chairman of the Board
Kiev landscape Club